The George Washington University
Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Department (EMSE)
Environmental & Energy Management Program (E&EM)

Fall 2003 (Volume 4, Number 2)

E&EM Graduate Student Dulce Meldau Starts Internship with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in Geneva, Switzerland

UNCTAD is the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development and the interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. In co-operation with other organizations and donor countries, UNCTAD provides technical assistance tailored to the needs of the developing countries, with special attention being paid to the needs of the least developed countries, and countries with economy in transition.

E&EM graduate student Dulce Meldau is currently working in the DITC (Division on International Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities), Trade, Environment and Development Branch in the Climate Change Programme and Biotrade Initiative.

The UNCTAD Earth Council Carbon Market Programme or Climate Change Programme is a programme focused on exploring the economic, trade and investment impacts of climate change in developing and transitional countries, and works to promote their effective participation in the emerging carbon market. This program has several projects related with the Kyoto Protocol and other measures to address climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized countries have taken binding limits on their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. They aim to reduce overall GHG emissions by 5.2% below their 1990 levels between the years 2008- 2012. Six GHGs are covered including: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. This agreement authorizes four flexible mechanisms in order to reduce the cost of meeting this target. These are: Emissions Trading, the Clean Development Mechanism, and Joint Implementation.

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of three mechanism established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to meet the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. Under the CDM, an investor from a developing country invests in a project that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and claims those reductions. After passing certain certification requirements, reductions in emissions convert into ''credits'' for the environmental benefit brought by the investment, and value of the credit is shared between the investor and the project developer.

Dulce's activities at UNCTAD are direct linked with domestic climate policies and the application of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) in developing countries. She is working on several initiatives to engage the private sectors in CDM. Among these activities, she is involved in formatting a compilation of projects and programmes in Brazil that are developing clean technologies, renewable sources of energy and reforestation with a view to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of this study is to provide a general picture of the activities being carried out in Brazil to combat global warming, which could eventually be eligible for the CDM. This mechanism is expected to be initiated anytime soon with the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol.

For more information about other projects, you can visit UNCTAD's web site. For information about the Biotrade Initiative visit it's web site.

To contact Dulce Meldau:

Dulce Helena Meldau
Climate Change Programme and Biotrade Initiative
UNCTAD - Palais des Nations
CH-1211 Geneva 10 – Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 917 4124
Fax.+41 22 917 0044

Jonathan P. Deason, Ph.D., Lead Professor