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CALM SUMMARY DATA
North America
United States (Alaska)
Alaska North Slope
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
U1 Barrow 71 19' N 156 36' W 1000/T - -   30 35 35 36 37 41 37 34 31 31 29 42 33 32 32 34 34 41 41 38 41 34 40 40 39 38
U2 Barrow, CRREL Plots 71 19' N 156 35' W 10/T - 23 23 29 34 34 35 37 40 37 36 29 30  28 41 35 34 35 35 36 41 39 38 40 34 39 38 39 37
U3 Atkasuk 70 27' N 157 24' W 1000/T - - - - - 44 47 45 51 49 43 40 42 37 59 47 47 46 49  54 49 50 50 58 52 54 56 53 51
U4 West Dock 1 ha grid 70 22' N 148 33' W 100/T/B56 - - - - - - 30 31 34 33 28 29 29 29 35 27 34 27 30 25 29 29 34 35 31 37 37 37 35
U5 West Dock 1 km grid 70 22' N 148 34' W 1000 - - - 48 55 51 55 52 58 51 46 46 48 48 54 45 53 44 47 44 46 51 52 54 48 54 55 56 52
U6 Deadhorse 70 10' N 148 28' W 100/T/B60 - - - - - - 64 65 70 71 61 62 61 61 67 56 67 58 63 58 65 63 69 72 70 73 72 72 68
U7 A Betty Pingo 1 km grid 70 17' N 148 52' W 1000/T - - - 52 54 55 55 55 60 54 47 48 50 50 58 49 56 46 51 48 49 54 56 58 49 54 57 56 51
U7 B Betty Pingo MNT 70.2835 N 148.8928 W 100 - - - - - 41 44 42 44 39 37 34 37 37 42 35 40 32 34  32 34 36 40 43 35 39 41 41 35
U7 C Betty Pingo WET 70.275 N 148.919 W 100 - - - - - 43 48 41 46 42 41 36 41 38 45 36 43 34 40  37 40 43 45 44 41 43 46 45 43
U8 Franklin Bluff 69 41' N 148 43' W 100/T/B60 - - - - - - 63 66 72 66 55 58 55 55 64 53 65 57 57 60 66 65 69 70 68 68 67 69 62
U9 A Happy Valley 69 10' N 148 50' W 100/T/B40 - - - - - - 36 40 47 44 - - - 35 - 32 39 33 43 38 43 40 42 44 42 42 46 45 44
U9 B Happy Valley 1 km grid 69 06' N, 148 30' W 1000/T - - - 44 45 43 43 48 48 44 40 42 40 40 45 41 47 40 44 49 44 47 43 47 47 46 46 45 43
U10 Lupine Hill 69.12883 N 148.5928 W 100 - - - - - 48 46 40 - 48 41 41 41 46 42 41 46 36 48 51 54 57 49 54 51 50 49 52 52
U11 A Imnavait Creek 1 km grid 68 30' N 149 30' W 1000/T - - 56 60 60 48 45 50 56 50 44 46 39 47 48 55 48 47 52 58 63 59 55 55 50 59 64 60 55
U11 B Imnavait Creek WET 68.611 N 149.3145 W 100 - - - - - 53 54 56 54 53 45 49 39 46 51 44 49 45 54 58 64 56 51 60 55 55 63 57 62
U11 C Imnavait Creek MAT 68.611 N 149.30933 W 100 - - - - - 43 43 47 46 47 37 43 30 40 42 39 38 41 45 47 55 47 50 53 46 54 49 53 47
U12 A Toolik 1 km grid 68 37' N 149 36' W 1000/T - - - - - 45 47 49 54 48 44 46 37 41 40 51 48 51 50  55 61 55 50 51 50 51 53 56 50
U12 B Toolik MAT 68.624 N 149.61817 W 100 - - - - - 43 47 45 51 52 41 45 33 37 45 44 41 38 44 47 53 47 48 51 45 50 45 50 52
U13 Toolik LTER 68 37' N 149 36' W P/T 36 28 40 46 36 43 33 46 44 45 38 32 33 40 40 37 39 41 35 51 45 43 38           inactive
U14 Galbraith Lake 68 29' N 149 30' W 100/T/B75 - - - - - - 51 59 60 56 - 46 39 47 - 44 48 54 53 59 59 50 56 57 55 57 57 55 54
U15 Chandalar Shelf 68 04' N 149 35' W 30/T/B61 - - - - - - 35 * 35 36 32 32 24 30 39 38 35 42 36 38 43 41 44 37 36 38 41 42 41
U26 Ivotuk 1 km grid 68 29' N 155 44' W 1000 - - - - - - - - - - 55 51 43 - 53 51 54 56 50  55 57 53 50 54 52 - 56 54 51
U31 56 Mile 69.6969 N 148.6821 W 100 - - - - - - 61 68 71 62 63 61 63 64 66 56 65 54 65 64 67 75 69 70 64 65 66 66 64
U32 A Sagwon Hills MNT 69.441 N 148.67033 W 100 - - - - - 60 61 58 67 59 55 52 55 52 56 47 60 52 59  61 62 65 61 60 55 57 60 61 59
U32 B Sagwon Hills MAT 69.401 N 148.8056 W 100 - - - - - 40 40 40 43 41 37 38 33 36 42 28 40 25 41 42 43 47 38 41 42 41 37 40 42
U20 Drew Point 70 52' N 153 55' W T/B640 - - - - - - - - 39 37 36 29 33 29 42 39 40 40 41 41 42 44 46 45 40 41 42    
U21 Inigok 70 00' N, 153 06' W T/B625 - - - - - - - - 47 48 42 40 51 44 61 42 43 37 37 41 43 41 44 45 37 36 41    
U22 Fish Creek 70 20' N 152 03' W T/B735 - - - - - - - - 30 29 28 27 30 28 37 30 29 27 27 29 33 31 34 33 28 29 30    
U23 Awuna 69 10' N 158 01' W T/B884 - - - - - - - - 41 42 35 31 32 30 - - - - - - - - - - - - -   inactive
U24 Umiat 69 24' N 152 09' W T/B640 - - - - - - - - 42 41 33 32 35 32 43 28 40 31 35 35 37 39 40 38 37 34 34    
U25 Tunalik 70 12' N 160 04' W T/B393 - - - - - - - - 44 45 41 41 42 42 55 53 54 63 57 63 64 64 61 58 51 52 54    
U29 Niguanak 69 53' N 142 59' W T/B/30? - - - - - - - - - - - 27 30 30 45 37 57 58 55 44 59 60 65 62 45 44      
U30 Koluktak 69 45' N 154 37' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - 120 118 117 120 110 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120    
U31 Marsh Creek 69 47' N 144 48' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 40 51 44 66 66 67 66 48  -  -  - 36 36 41    
U33 South Meade 70 38' N 156 50' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 39 41 40 37 42 43 43 41 45 39 - -    
U34 Camden Bay 69 58' N 144 46' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 47 - - - - - - - - - - -   inactive
U35 Awuna2 69 09' N 158 02' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 52 56 63 - - - - - - - - - -   inactive
U36 Red Sheep Creek 68 41' N 144 50' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59 65 65 68 64 68 76 - - - - - -   inactive
U37 Piksiksak 70 02' N 157 05' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34 40 50 55 53 55 55 54 49 53 46 45 45    
U38 East Teshekpuk 70 34' N 152 58' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24 27 32 31 34 33 36 34 38 35 25 29 31    
U39 Ikpikpuk 70 26' N 154 22' W T/B/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                             inactive
Alaska Interior
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
U16 Old Man 66 27' N 150 37' W 100/T/B63 - - - - - - 33 37 44 39 35 - - 39 43 41 42 43 38 38 46 43 42 36 43 39 43 43 45
U17 Wickersham 65 16' N 148 03' W TT/P 43 41 42 45 44 47 36 40 43 39 49 46 46 52 38 41 52 53 54 53 48 48 49 52 54 56 61 55 59
U18 Bonanza Creek LTER 64 45' N 148 00' W TT/P/T/B44 47 49 50 * 55 58 45 50 51 40 59 59 56 56 55 63 59 67 58 55 59[1] 98* 121* 131* 168* 178* 192* 220* 244*
U19 Pearl Creek 64 54' N 147 48' W TT/P 70 63 71 66 66 72 53 61 65 55 58 59 61 61 61 70 67 80 79 77 78 77 76 77 90 101 143 120 154
U41 Farmers Loop 64 88' N 147 67' W 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 58 54 57 57 53 57 57 57 55 59 56 62 60 62
U40A Mentasta Fen 62 33' N 143 22' W 100/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51 58               inactive
U40B Tanada Muskeg 62 31' N 143 22' W 100/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 60 70               inactive
U42 Kotlik 63.02131 N 163.5607 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51 47 48 56 52 52 - 68    
U43 Emmonak 62.78478 N 164.52623 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 63 51 58 60 67 63 - 78    
U44 Chevak 61.52786 N 165.61778 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59 47 53 - 61 63 - -    
U45 Marshall 61.87901 N 162.05759 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 56 48 50 59 53 X       inactive
U46 St.Mary's 62.04755 N 163.23412 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 83 66 72 72 - 80 82 88    
U47 Circle 65.82819 N 144.07843 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 66 73 81 78 76 84 - -    
U48 Fort Yukon 66.62076 N 145.1035 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 90 94 100 91 94 99 X      
U49 Hess Creek 65.65724 N 149.08443 W 100/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38 46 48 47 37 51 42 48    
U50 Galena 64.7333 N 156.78334 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39 44 51 51 46 60 - -    
U51 Eagle 64.7777 N 141.10954 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32 65 63 52 41 51 - 63    
U52 Allakaket 66.54491 N 152.64539 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 45 60 49 34 55 - -    
U53 Ruby 64.73486 N 155.48461 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 53 63 66 64 66 - -    
U54 Nome Creek 65.36988 N 147.0609 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 46 50 - 43 43 47 53    
U55 Arctic Village 68.13013 N 145.540066 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 70 69 69 62 65 - 55    
U56 Venetie 67.03829 N 146.40263 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 70 72 45 66 X       inactive
U57 Nenana 64.55446 N 149.08339 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 61 59 60 60 65 59 67    
U58 Dot Lake 63.67475 N 144.14597 W   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 64 49 68 57 X       inactive
Alaska Seward Peninsula
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
U27 Council Grid 64 50' N 163 42' W 1000 - - - - - - - - - 73 53 71 53 59 - 76 - - 75 63 65 71 57 55 60 68 75 64 69
U28 Kougarok 65 27' N 164 37' W 1000 - - - - - - - - - 65 47 56 52 54 - 75 - - 62 61 64 68 56 58 58 57 58 63 61
CANADA
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
C1 Alexandria Fiord 78 53' N 75 55' W 100 - - - - - 43 49 - - 57 62 58 - - - - - - - - - - - - -       inactive
C3 A North Head (thaw tube) 6943'11 N 13427'43 W TT - 61 62 63 64 62 60 <66 70 66 59 62 60 59 - - - 64 63 - - - - - - 56 57    
C3 B North Head (grid) 6943'11 N 13427'43 W 100 - - - - - - - - 52 52 43 43 44 45 50 40 52 48 50 44 - 50 - 42 - - -    
C4 A Taglu (Thaw tube) 6922' 9 N 13456'55 W TT/T/B30 - - 111 <119 118 >124 112 118 >148 >132 - 117 110 124 119 101 129 132 114 138 - 171 - - -        
C4 B Taglu (grid) 6922' 9 N 13456'55 W 100 - - - - - - - - 104 110 109 100 100 96 99 80 96 94 91  86 94 94 91 85 - - -    
C5 A Lousy Point (Thaw tube) 6913' 8 N 13417'28 W TT/T/B30 - 81 78 80 86 85 75 <89 91 84 64 70 64 73 68 68 77 73 68  67 74 72 83 78 81 82 77    
C5 B Lousy Point (grid) 6913' 8 N 13417'28 W 100 - - - - - - - - 64 62 52 53 54 53 55 49 61 55 59 55 - - 63 51 - - -    
C6 Parsons Lake 68 58' N 133 33' W T 79 80 85 84 91 89 84 90 80 75 78 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       inactive
C7 A Reindeer Depot (Thaw tube) 6841' 5 N 134 8'45 W TT - - 127 129 132 136 134 135 140 137 134 136 123 129 122 115 134 128 131 129 137 138 154 150 144 146 151    
C7 B Reindeer Depot (grid) 6841' 5 N 134 8'45 W 100 - - - - - - - - - - 113 117 108 101 - 104 121 109 111  - - - - - - -     inactive
C8 A Rengleng River (Thaw tube) 6747'42 N 134 7'34 W TT - - 102 106 111 111 108 110 116 111 110 108 108 105 107 103 115 113 110 - - - - - - 111 112    
C8 B Rengleng River (grid) 6747'42 N 134 7'34 W 100 - - - - - - - - 82 78 80 77 75 72 - 71 83 80 81 78 - 84 85 - 79 76 -    
C9 A Mountain River (Thaw tube) 6540'25 N 12849'45 W TT - - 58 59 62 62 58 59 62 57 59 53 53 54 48 48 - - -   - - - - - -       inactive
C10 Pump Station 65 17' N 126 53' W T/P 62 66 64 58 60 63 61 77 78 77 80 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       inactive
C11 A Norman Wells (Thaw tube) 6511'35" N 12628' 8" W TT - - 64 63 61 61 59 59 66 64 64 66 64 60 60 61 - - - - - - - - -       inactive
C11 B Norman Wells (grid) 6511'35" N 12628' 8" W 100 - - - - - - - - 50 49 45 45 47 41 39 46 48 47 50  - - - - - -       inactive
C12 Great Bear River 64 55' N 125 35' W T/P 71 72 72 72 69 69 63 69 87 86 86 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       inactive
C13 Ochre River 6327'59 N 12341'34 W TT - - - <58 60 58 63 <65 66 65 65 64 64 64 58 62 66 67 - - - - 69 - 72        
C14 A Willowlake River 6241'48 N 123 3'54 W TT - - - 79 83 84 90 87 89 91 82 86 88 86 80 82 89 88 - - 90 - 91 - 89   91    
C14 B Willowlake River 6241'48 N 123 3'54 W 100 - - - - - - - - - - - 74 78 72 73 78 88 87 88  84 - 87 - 83 -        
C15 A Fort Simpson 6153'16 N 12136' 6 W TT/T - - - 95 106 123 - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -         inactive
C15 B Fort Simpson 6153'16 N 12136' 6 W 100 - - - - - - - - - 76 85 84 82 76 77 91 93 99 98 88 - 104 - 96 - 101 -    
C16 Lake Hazen; Ellesmere Island 81 49' N 71 23' W T - - - - 47 51 47 46 52 43 - - - - - - - -  -                   inactive
C17 Sheldrake River 56 38' N 76 06' W T 121 134 107 131 134 - 154 157 - - - - - - - - - -  -                   inactive
C18 Tanquary Fiord; Ellesmere Island 81 24' N 76 42' W 100 - - - - - - - 56 51 58 - - - - - - - -  -                   inactive
C19 Eureka; Ellesmere Island 80 01' N 85 45' W 1000 - - - - - - - 52 53 - 49 - - - - - - -  -                   inactive
C20 Baker Lake 64 10' N 95 30' W T/B3 - - - - - - - 120 170 174 189 193 - - 178 - - -  -                   inactive
C21 Marmot Mountain 52 48' N 118 07' W T 336 352 362 220 354 272 240 192 - 342 96 152 84 - - - - -  -                   inactive
C22 Dawson 63.94054 N 138.59157 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 32 39 45 37 52 - -    
C23 Teslin 60.44943 N 133.52016 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 55 46 53 52 58 65 - -    
C24 Beaver Creek 62.3377 N 140.83835 W 50/P/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 48 42 52 54 X     inactive
Russia
Russian European north
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
R2 Ayach-Yakha, Vorkuta 67 35' N 64 11' E 100/T - - - - - - 70 63 65 64 69 73 76 77 78 81 84 89 87 86 89 88 91 93 91 90 92 80 85
R23 Talnik 67 20' N 63 44' E 100 - - - - - - - - 76 91 111 111 110 113 125 131 137 138  152 144 138 144 161 156 - 150 169 155 158
R24 Bolvansky 68 18' N 54 30' E 100 - - - - - - - - - 89 106 106 104 113 120 115 114 125 124 112 104 107 >135[2] 117 102 110 111 88 110
R24 A Kashin Island 68 14' N 53 51' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 58 64 88 87 65 80 109 76 84
R44 Umbozero; Kola Peninsula 67.7723958 N 34.1820458 E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 160 160 165 160 162 163 x x
R52 Seida 67 03 56.0 N 62 55 30.3 E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   48 52 53 56 60 53 54
West Siberia
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
R1 Nadym; West Siberia 65 20' N 72 55' E 100/T/B10 - - - - - - - 119 134 129 126 132 143 126 134 141 129 129 136 101[3] 114 129 134 136 164 163 186 148 178
R3 Marre Sale, Yamal Peninsula 69 43' N 66 45' E 1000/T/B10 - - - - - 131 110 92 93 92 106 111 115 109 114 116 116 114 114 85[4] 98 102 127 115 102 122 136 98[5] 107
R4 Parisento, Gydan Peninsula 70 07' N 75 35' E 1000 - - 82 91 - 94 - - - - - - - - - - - -  -  -  -  -  - - - - - - inactive
R5 Vaskiny Dachy, Yamal Peninsula 70 17' N 68 54' E 100/T/B10 - - - 84 85 95 89 81 93 87 92 92 92 * 94 97 94 92  93 76[6] 87 87 102 103 93 102 114 102 94
R5 A Vaskiny Dachi, Yamal Peninsula 7016'31.8" N 6853'29.9" E 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 72 75 47[7] 67 67 77 80 71 76 87 66 66
R5 B Vaskiny Dachi, Yamal Peninsula 7017'43.8" N 6853'00.5" E 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 72 73 81[8] 65 65 77 78 70 77 91 75 70
R5 C Vaskiny Dachi, Yamal Peninsula 7018'05.0" N 6850'28.7" E 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 112 113 82[9] 106 114 128 126 111 129 144 118 116
R5 D Vaskiny Dachi, Yamal Peninsula 7016'27.0" N 6853'26.8" E 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 48 54 39 40
R50a Urengoy Gas Field GP5 66.31537 N 76.90772 E 100/T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 65[10] 77 72 87 70 76 85 74 69 111
R50b Urengoy Gas Field GP15 67.4779100 N 76.6952900 E 100/T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 65[11] 80 82 95 92 84 93 96 93 101
R53 Harp, Polar Urals 66.723483 N 66.080488 E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -[12] - - - - - - 99 94 100
R55 Bely Island (silt) 7319'37" N 7005'07" E 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 54 50 53 60 55 41 59 68 57 53
R55a Bely Island (sand) 7319'43" N 7005'18" E 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100[13] 90 98 114 112 91 111 130 115 107
Central Siberia
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
R6 Labaz Lake, Taimyr 72 23' N 99 30' E 100/T - - - - 42 50 - - - - - - - - - - - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - inactive
R7 Levinson Lessing Lake, Taimyr 74 32' N 98 36' E 100/T - - - - 36 42 34 - - - - - - - - - - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - inactive
R8 Tiksi (Game), Lena Delta 71 35' N 128 47' E 1000/T - - - - - - - 40 40 42 47 - - - - - - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - inactive
R28 Svjatoy Nos cape (East Siberian sea) 72 51,42' N 141 00,61' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - 38 - - - - - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - inactive
R29 A Bykovsky (Lena delta) (edoma) 71 47.13' N 129 25.15' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - 27 - 35 25 33 35 44  38 28 38 39 33 26 35  -[14]  -  - inactive
R29 B Bykovsky (Lena delta) (alas) 71 47.13' N 71 25.15' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 33 32 44  37 25 28 35 30 24 33 30 30 26 36
R29 C Bykovsky (Lena delta) (edoma new) 71 47.13' N 129 25.15' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34 29 30 38
R32 Talnah (Norilsk Region) 69 26' N 88 28' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 81 91 90  94 94 94 96 104 86 95 102 84 106 104
R40 Igarka 67 28'56" N 86 26'08" E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 74 71 67 70 69 72 79 89 93  - 94
R42 Tuymada (Yakutsk region) 62.013306 N 129.656991 E 50/TT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 203 199 197 201 201 201 203 201 201 203 201
R43 Neleger (Yakutsk region) 62.316255 N 129.499661 E 50/TT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 124 122 123 123 124 129 126 125 121 121 119
R46 Chara Belenky 56.76038 N 118.18903 E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59 49[15] 61   61 41
R47 Chara Most 56.906264 N 118.280672 E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 55 42[16] 53   54 46
R51 Samoylov 72.369775 N 126.480632 E 150 - - - - - - - - - - - - 43 48 - 50 46 52 54 42 58 57 55 46 51 53 45 46 54
North East Siberia
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
R12 A Kuropatochya River; Kolyma 70 55' N 156 38' E 100/T/B15 - - - - - - 37 36 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - inactive
R12 B Kuropatochya River; Kolyma 70 55' N 156 38' E 100 - - - - - - 27 36 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - inactive
R13 A Cape Chukochii; edoma,Kolyma 70 05' N 159 35' E 100/T/B30 - - - - - - - 37 - 36 33 38 44 49 - 50 42 55 50 36 52 45 43 47 - 36 46 43 43
R13 B Cape Chukochi, alas, Kolyma 70 05' N 159 55'E 100 - - - - - - - - - - 31 39 38 48 - 46 32 56 37 25 46 46 41 47 - 27 41 38 44
R14 Chukochya River, Kolyma 69 29' N 156 59' E 100/T/B25 - - - - - - 42 - 41 38 41 - - - - 47 44 - 39 46 49 47 46 42 - 48 41 49 47
R15 A Konkovaya River, Kolyma 69 23' N 158 28' E 100/T/B50 - - - - - - 39 44 25 32 - 36 - - - - 30 60  38 28 48 32 30 30 - 31 33 31 30
R15 B Konkovaya River, Kolyma 69 23' N 158 28' E 100/T/B50 - - - - - - - - - 36 - 32 - - - - 44 54  44 39 45 54 46 43 - 44 41 39 40
R16 Segodnya Pingo, Kolyma 69 05' N 158 54' E 100 - - - - - - 38 - - 30 - - - - - 54 42 75 49 43 56 72 54 50 57 60 57 56 52
R17 Akhmelo channel; Kolyma 68 49' N 161 00' E 100/T - - - - - - 44 56 43 - 45 47 - 51 55 54 53 60  49 47 56 61 53 55 64 55 57 55 70
R18 Mt. Rodinka; Kolyma 68 45' N 161 30' E 100/T - - - - - - 45 67 72 74 75 75 76 81 85 82 83 86 80 78 84 84 77 74 79 83 85 87 89
R18 A Mt. Rodinka; Kolyma ( 10 m grid) 68 45' N 161 30' E 10/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - 91 97 100 96 104 98 96 104 104 97 94 101 102 109 111 119
R19 Lake Glukhoe, Kolyma 68 48' N 160 57' E 100 - - - - - - 72 56 65 67 72 - - 84 92 95 93 -  92 92 103 94 83 89 95 101 112 79 89
R20 Malchilovskaya Channel, Kolyma 68 31' N 161 26' E 100 - - - - - - 54 - 48 52 46 50 - 48 56 53 54 57  55 49 53 59 54 61 65 59 53 64 64
R21 Lake Akhmelo, Kolyma 68 50' N 161 02' E 100/T/B15 - - - - - - 85 - 70 83 84 84 - 96 103 113 101 117  100 96 110 105 92 96 108 96 111 85 97
R22 Alazeya River 69 19' N 154 59' E 100/B23 - - - - - - - - 46 46 * - - - 51 53 - 57  53 51 57 50 52 49 45 56 53 54 55
R25 Jakutskoe Lake 69 51' N 159 30' E 100 - - - - - - - - - 23 37 38 - - - 55 45 65  43 42 65 60 41 41 - 39 42 43 49
R26 Panteleikha, Kolyma 68 25' N 161 13' E 100 - - - - - - 45 - - - - - - - - - - -  -  -  -  -  - - - - - - inactive
R31 Allaiha (Indigirka basin) 70 33' N 147 26' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39 42 44 48  47 49 52 52 50 47 47 46 49 41 39
R31 A Allaiha (Indigirka basin, alas) 70 34' N 147 25' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 42 47 38 37
R35 Omolon 68 44' N 158 54' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 34 32 52 45 44 40 40 46 32 43 41
R36 Andryushkino 69 10' N 154 26' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38 37 43  43 41 31 35 34 44 38 38 42 43 44
R37 A Khomus-1 69 59' N 153 35' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51 - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - - - inactive
R37 B Khomus-2 69 59' N 153 35' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 54 - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - - - inactive
R38 A Mt. Rodinka (Control) 68 42' N 161 33' E 10/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - 115 129 148 137 151 133 122 145 149 130 124 132 134 135 136 -
R38 B Mt. Rodinka (Burn) 68 43' N 161 32' E 10/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - 148 155 167 156 - - - 154 157 139 147 150 152 154 - -
R38 C Mt. Rodinka (Station) 68 44' N 161 24' E 10/T - - - - - - - - - - - - - 72 77 80 81 84 79 78 82 79 72 66 75 75 72 75 74
Chukotka
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
R9 Cape Rogozhny; Chukotka 64 47' N 176 58' E 100/T - - - - 43 42 49 50 38 39 42 44 46 50 57 57 53 59  52 52 52 51 53 52 59 55 60 55 51
R10 Upper Kargoplgyno River; Chukotka 64 05' N 177 04' E 100 - - 59 51 56 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - inactive
R11 Mt. Dionisy, Chukotka 64 34' N 177 12' E 100/T - - - - - - 50 47 45 53 46 47 52 55 64 62 - 67  61 60 53 57 54 57 60 58 64 60 65
R27 Lavrentia 65 36' N 171 03' W 100 - - - - - - - - - - 59 60 62 64 65 67 59 74  61 64 74 65 67 69 70 72 67 67 78
R41 Lorino 65.539667 N 171.630229 W 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 47 47 47 51 56 55 56 55 59
R45 Kruglaya (Anadyr) 64 38' N 176 58' E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 44 44 47 49 44 49 49 46
Kamchatka
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
R30 A Ploskii Tolbachik (Kamchatka) 5545'2.52"N 16017'22.74"E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 78 67 71 73 72 73 80 76 72 76 x[17] x x x x inactive
R30 B Ploskii Tolbachik (Kamchatka) 1 5545'54.87"N 16019'14.06"E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - -   49 56 54 53 56 63 58 59 57 x x x x x inactive
R30 C Ploskii Tolbachik (Kamchatka) 2 5553'27.30"N 16032'15.00"E 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - -       44 45 49 49 50 50 48 46 - 47 53 51 49
Nordic Countries
Denmark (Greenland)
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
G1 Zackenberg; ZEROCALM 1 74.4730 N 20.5528 W 100/T - - - - - - 60 62 66 50 64 63 71 73 76 79 76 75 79 79 78 82 82 75 74 74 85 83 58
G2 Zackenberg; ZEROCALM 2 74.4660 N 20.5643 W 150/T - - - - - - 61 57 60 44 60 60 60 63 65 69 68 67 68 73 70 75 72 70 67 55 71 71 45
G3 Disko Island 69 15' N 53 30' W 100/T - - - - - - - 57 71 74 68 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - inactive
Norway/Svalbard
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
N1 Janssonhaugen, Svalbard 78 10' N 16 28' E T/B102 - - - - - - - - 152 161 157 159 172 170 174 166 182 177 168 176 184 185 177 180 181 191 197 185 187
N2 Junvvasshoe, Norway 61 40' N 08 22' E T/B129 - - - - - - - - - 215 198 198 241 241 221 224 242 215 220 231 217 232 - 212 243 216 235 211 244
N3 UNISCALM 78 12' N 15 45' E 100/T - - - - - - - - - - 95 99 96 93 90 74 100 105 110 100 101 101 101 103 103 105 106 104 103
Poland/Svalbard
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
P1 Calypsos Tranda, Svalbard 77 34' N 14 30' E P 135 141 140 147 - 144 134 - 137   134 131 135 - - 178 195 197 185 188                 inactive
P2 A Kaffioyra Plain, Spitsbergen 78 41' N 11 50' E P - - - - - - - - - 120 117 122 128 106 112 118 - -                     inactive
P2 B Kaffioyra Plain, Spitsbergen 78 41' N 11 50' E P - - - - - - - - - 165 156 158 168 140 108 132 - -                     inactive
P2 C Kaffioyra Plain, Spitsbergen 78 41' N 11 50' E P - - - - - - - - - 200 210 219 170 230 191 220 - -                     inactive
Sweden/Svalbard
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
S1 Kapp Linne, Svalbard 78 03' N 13 37' E 100/T/B7 74 89 91 113 99 97 101 97 109 99 104 95 96 - 93 - - - 89 89 89 91             inactive
S2 Abisko area, Sweden 68 20' N 18 50' E 100/T 61 57 56 54 55 51 58 65 72 62 73 75 81 77 75 67 72 73 71 69 69 69 67 74 84 88 91 90  
Switzerland
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
CH1 Murtel-Corvatsch 49 26' N 9 50' E T/B31 327 337 340 345 348 344 338 343 347 343 345 348 344 351 351 350 350 351 351                   inactive
CH2 Schilthorn 46 33' N 7 50' E T/B14 - - - - - - - - 430 443 488 - 460 496 481 480 484 466 497                   inactive
Central asia
Mongolia
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
M 1 Baganuur Depression 47.68889 108.26250 T/B15 - - - - - - 345 350 355 345 350 340 355 - 375 365 380 380 370 350                 inactive  
M1 A Baganuur depression 47.69444 108.29444 T/B15 - - - - - - 390 390 - 430 485 400 450 600 770 710 820 820                     inactive
M2 A Nalaikh northern slope 47.75444 107.25000 T/T/B50 - - - - - - 335 340 350 340 345 335 345 335 335 340 335 340 340 345                 inactive
M2 B Nalaikh pingo top 47.77639 107.30000 T/B7 - - - - - - - - 135 130 135 135 140 - 135 140 - 135 130                   inactive
M2 C Nalaikh south-western slope 47.77278 107.29167 T/B15 - - - - - - - - - - 330 335 350 355 350 365 400 430 435 435                 inactive
M2 D Nalaikh thermokarst 47.77639 107.33833 T/B3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 120 - 125 115 130 130 135                 inactive
M2 E Nalaikh south western slope 47.77083 107.28750 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - 370 400 - - - 430 420 460 470 520 480                 inactive
M2 F Nalaikh depression plain 47.75278 107.33667 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 530 510 530 585 590                   inactive
M3 Argalant valley bottom 47.92361 106.54722 T/B9 - - - - - -   610 620 600 610 660 720 760 770 750 760 770 800                   inactive
M4 A Burenkhan northern slope 49.78833 100.03417 TT/B5 - - - - - - 370 340     380 390 420 440 430 410 390 430 430 390                 inactive
M4 B Burenkhan valley bottom 49.70417 100.16750 TT/B6 - - - - - - - - - - 325 340 345 348 352 342 350 -                     inactive
M4 C Burenkhan north eastern slope 49.78472 100.03167 T/B40 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 950 1200 1350 1250                 inactive
M4 D Burenkhan north-facing steep slope 49.78278 100.04667 T/B20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 410 400                   inactive
M5 Ardag Mountain 50.62639 100.16583 T/B15 - - - - - - - - - 300 335 430 360 - - - - -                     inactive
M5 A Ardag watershed 50.65917 100.16333 T/B75 - - - - - - - - - 310 - - - - 400 - - 400 410                   inactive
M5 B Ardag watershed 2 50.65639 100.16250 T/B75 - - - - - - - - - 300 280 - 295   270 - - 315 325                   inactive
M5 C Ardag watershed 3 50.67667 100.16639 T/B150 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 480 250 440                   inactive
M5D Ardag watershed 5 50.67667 100.16639 T/B200                                 185   305                   inactive
M6 A Terkh valley bottom 48.08194 99.37333 T/B15 - - - - - -       205 210 207 210 205 215 230 235 235 230 220                 inactive
M7 A Chuluut pingo top 48.04111 100.39167 T/B15 - - - - - -       136 140 137 142     140 160 175 180 180                 inactive
M7 B Chuluut valley bottom 48.63611 100.37556 T/B15 - - - - - - - - - - - - 285 260 290 275 270 285 290 280                 inactive
M8 Sharga valley bottom 49.49027 98.65639 T/B10 - - - - - -             285 280 275 275 285 280 290 280                 inactive
M9 Gurban turuu 47.03889 107.68611 TT/B3 - - - - - - - - - - - 295 301 305 295 - - -                     inactive
M10 Tsengel Mountain 48.66944 89.11139 T/B1.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - 109 105 - - - -                     inactive
M10 A Tsengel N slope 48.75250 89.13556 T/B3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 275 280 285 - -                     inactive
M10 B Tsengel valley bottom 48.77833 89.14056 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 550 - -                     inactive
M11 Hatgal lake terrace 50.43861 100.15028 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - 485 475 470 475 480 485 470 475                 inactive
M11 A Hatgal house falt terrace 50.43861 100.15222 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - 450 - 490 470 435 440 435 485                 inactive
M11 B Hatgal house 50.43333 100.16056 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - 370 375 382 390 382 400 406 400 410                 inactive
M12 Dalbay 51.02000 100.75833 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 134 133 138 140 145 139 135                 inactive
M12 A Borsog Flood plain 50.97028 100.72722 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 185     182 186 192 186                 inactive
M12 B Borsog W slope 50.97444 100.72861 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 240 255 220 275 250 295                 inactive
M12 C Shagnuul 50.25444 100.84472 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 425 425 385 360 - 360 355                 inactive
M12 D Turag 51.28583 100.82722 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 475 470 475 470 475 488 472                 inactive
M12 E Noyon 51.20972 100.77028 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -     380 355 376 381 372                 inactive
M12 F Dalbay 50.04444 100.73278 TT - - - - - - - - - - - - 230   225 -   -   210                 inactive
M12 G Dalbay pingo 50.04417 100.75444 TT - - - - - - - - - - - - - 82 - - 96 - 137 134                 inactive
M12 H Dalbay gully 51.03111 100.72250 TT - - - - - - - - - - - - - 130 - - - 145 143 133                 inactive
M13 Darhad Tsagaan nuur 51.35556 99.35917 T/B15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 146 150 - 1.45                   inactive
M13 A Darhad Khuurch 51.18722 99.49750 T/B100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 150 148 158 160                     inactive
M13 B Darhad Rinchin 51.11472 99.63694 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 330 - 345 340                   inactive
M13 C Darhad Sharga 51.35861 99.47972 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 175 180 -                     inactive
M14 Terelj open slope 47.98028 100.42528 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 440 425 440 368 374 421 432                 inactive
M14 A Terelj forested slope 47.97944 100.42556 T/B6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 300 325 285 235 245 257 240                 inactive
M15 Borhujir 48.27528 106.19472 T/B10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 235 220 220                 inactive
M16 Mongot pingo top 49.34722 99.24222 T/B33                                       115                 inactive
M16A Khurimt tal 49.29694 98.19000 TT                                     275               inactive
China
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
CN1 Yutulihe; Northeast China 50 56' N 121 20' E T - 96 100 109 112  - -  -  -  -  - - - - - - - -                      inactive
CN2 Fenghuo Shan 34 20' N 97 52' E T/B35 - - - - - - - - 135 137 139 142 143 145 149 154 177 196 182 187                 inactive
CN3 Ecology Station 34 44' N 92 53' E T - - - - - - - - 260 263 263 >263 >263 >265 >260 >265 279 274 273                   inactive
CN4 Wuli 35 26' N 93 36' E T - - - - - - - - - - >260 >260 >260 >260 >260 >260 337 319 292 317                 inactive
CN5 Lower Two Rivers 34 28' N 92 44' E T/B40 - - - - - - - - - - 87 89 89 107 - >120 122 110 100 119                 inactive
CN6 Upper Two Rivers 31v 49' N 91 44' E T/B18 - - - - - - - - - - >235 >235 >235 >235 >235 >235 - -                     inactive
CN7 Kunlun Basin 35 37' N 94 04' E T - - - - - - - - - - - - - 136 136 139 142 138 137                   inactive
CN8 Glacier Station 43 13' N 87 07' E T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                     inactive
CN9 Da Xi Gou (Glacier Station) 43 07' N 86 51' E T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                     inactive
CN10 Deep Borehole 43 07' N 86 51' E T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                   inactive
CN11 Shallow Borehole 43 06' N 86 49' E T - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                     inactive
Kazakstan
Site Code Site Name Location Method SITE AVERAGES OF THE ANNUAL END-OF-SEASON THAW DEPTH (cm)
LAT LONG 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
K0 Northern Tien Shan; Cosmostation 43 05' N 76 55' E T/B25 480 510 510 470 490 480 470 480 480 490 490 500 490 492 496 500 495 505 513 638[18] 688 569           inactive
K1 Northern Tien Shan; Cosmostation 43 05' N 76 55' E T/B14 450 490 460 420 500 510 490 500 500 520 510 465 470 475 - - - 495 500 495 486 457             inactive
K2 Northern Tien Shan; Cosmostation 43 05' N 76 55' E T/B14             - - 410 420 460 470 480 470 480 470 485 455 450 347 381 300             inactive

[1]
Dima:
Site was burned. See metadata for details
[2]
Dima:
permafrost table was not reached at any of 121 grid-nodes by using mechanical probe of 135 cm.
[3]
Dima:
Early measurement
[4]
Dima:
measurment was made on August1 (about 25 days earlier than ussual)
[5]
Dmitry Streletskiy:
early measurement
[6]
Dima:
measurment was made on August1 (about 25 days earlier than ussual)
[7]
Dima:
Early measurement
[8]
Dima:
Early measurement
[9]
Dima:
Early measurement
[10]
Dima:
Early measurement
[11]
Dima:
Early measurement
[12]
Dima:
Early measurement
[13]
Dima:
Early measurement
[14]
Dmitry Streletskiy:
R29a was disturbed. Site R29C was organized at similar landscape conditions nerby
[15]
Dima:
One month early
[16]
Dima:
One month early
[17]
Dima:
30a and 30b were covered by lava after Nov 2012 eruption. See metadata
[18]
Dima:
S.Marchenko:there was no freezup during the winter of 2008-2009. Residual thawed layer (talik) was formed