"If the parts of a system are not summatively or unilaterally related, then in what manner are they united? Having rejected these two classified conceptual models, we would then seem to be left with what in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were their disreputable alternatives--vague, vitalistic, and metaphysical notions which, since they did not fit the doctrine of determinism, were branded teleological. However, as already shown... the conceptual shift from energy (and matter) to information has finally led us away from the sterile choice between deterministic and teleological casual schemes. Since the advent of cybernetics and the discovery' of feedback, it has been seen that circular and highly complex relatedness is a markedly different but no less scientific phenomena than simpler and more orthodox casual notions. Feedback and circularity, as described in detail in Chapter 1 and as illustrated repeatedly in Chapters 2 and 3, are the appropriate causal model for a theory of interactional systems. The specific nature of a feedback process is of much greater interest than original and, frequently, outcome."